Vol.11(N0.1 2011)

Title   Autor Page
The Original The Immediate Effects of symmetric upper limb pattern of PNF for respiratory function in adults The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effect of the symmetric upper limbs pattern of the Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation (PNF) approach compare with Silverster's technique. The subjects were thirty two healthy adults volunteers (mean age 24.9±3.4). The subjects were divided into 3 groups (PNF, silvester's technique and controal). The Blood pressure and Heart rate, SVC, FVC, PEmax, PImax were measured with befor and after each intervention. The results of a one way ANOVA showed significant the rate of change of Tidal volume, PEmax .The Tukey's post hoc showed that PNF group improved in the rate of change of intervention before and after of PEmax significantly from control group, and in silvester's technique group, PNF group, a rate of change improved about tidal volume significantly from control group. The results showed that the symmetric upper limbs pattern of PNF approach increased the activity of the expiratory muscles, when it synchronized with respiration.

Key Wors: Respiratory function, Silverster's technique, Proprioceptive Neuromusculae Facilitation (PNF)
Manabu Nakamura
Tatsuya Suenaga
Takashi Ito
Takumi Yamada
1~8
The effects of static contraction facilitation techniques using a Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation pattern in the mid-range of pelvic motion on gait in stroke hemiplegia Background: A resistive movement using a Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation (PNF) pattern for pelvic motion posterior depression (PD) and anterior elevation (AE) in side-lying position has been shown to increase gait ability. However, the effect on gait of a resistive static contraction using a PNF pattern in the mid-range pelvic motion of PD (SCPD) and AE (SCAE) with the subject in the side lying on the affected side is not clear. Aim:The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pelvic SCPD and SCAE on gait speed. Design: Randomized design. Methods: Fifteen stroke subjects (mean age=62.2 years, SD=11.1) were randomly assigned to the SCPD group, SCAE group, or repeated gait exercize group. The percentage change in gait-time for before and after each exercise was calculated. Result: The 10m gait-time (ICC(1,1)=0.99), a highly reliable measure, was recorded before and after each exercise. The result of a one-way ANOVA calculated between the groups using the percentage change in gait-time variances showed a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The Sheff post hoc revealted that the SCAE group showed a significant improvement as compared to the repeated gait exercuse group (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that SCAE may have immediate effects for increasing gait speed.

Key Words: hemiplegia, SCAE, SCPD, gait time
Masumi Yanagisawa
Tomoko Shiratani
Mituo Arai
Ken Yanagisawa
Michele Eisemann Shimizu
9~14
The effects of a resisitive static contraction facilitation technique using a Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation pattern in mid-range pelvic motion on gait in stroke hemiplegia Background: A resistive movement using a Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation (PNF) pattern for pelvic posterior depression and anterior elevation (AE) in the side-lying position has been shown to increase gait ability. However, the effect on gait of a resistive static contraction using a PNF pattern in the mid-range pelvic motion of posterior elevation (SCPE) and AE (SCAE) with the subject in side lying on the affected side is not clear. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of SCPE and SCAE on gait speed. Design: Randomized design. Methods: Sixteen subjects with stroke hemiplegia (mean age=62.2 years, SD=10.8) were randomly assigned to the SCPE group, SCAE group, or repeated gait exercise group. The 10m gait-time (ICC(1,1)=0.99), a highly reliable measure, was recorded before and after each exercise. The percentage change in gait-time for before and after each exercise was calculated. Results: The result of a one-way ANOVA calculated between groups using the percentage change in gait-time varuances showed a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The Sheffe posy hoc revealted that SCPE and SCAE groups showed significant improvement as compared to the repeated gait exercise group (p<0.05). Conclusion:These results suggest that SCF techinique may have immediate effects for improving the swing phase in gait.

Key Words: stroke, hemiplegia, SCAE, SCPD, gait time
Mitsuo Arai
Tomoko Shiratani
Yasuhiro harada
Takuya Kawasaki
Ken Yanagisawa
Michele Eisemann Shimizu
15~20
The effects of a resistive static contraction facilitation technique using a Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation pattern in mid range pelvic or scapular motion on gait in stroke hemiplegia Background: A resistive movement using a proprioceptive neuromusclar facilitation (PNF) pattern for pelvic motion posterior depression (PD) and anterior elevation (AE) in the side-lying position has been shown to increase gait ability. However, the effect on gait of a resistive static contraction using a PNF pattern in the mid-range pelvic motion of PD (pelvic SCPD) and in the mid-range scapular motion of AE (scaplar SCAE) with the subject in side lying on the affected is not clear. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects on 10m gait-time using pelvic SCPD and scapular SCAE. Design: Randomized design. Methods: Thirteen stroke subjects(mean age=71.7 years, SD=13.9) were randomly assigned to the pelvic SCPD group, the scapular SCAE group, or repeated gait exercise group. The 10m gait-time (ICC(1,1)=0.998), a highly reliable measure, was recorded before and after each exercise. The percentage change in gait-time for before and after each exercise was calculated. Results: The result of a one way ANOVA calculated between groups using the percentage change in gait-time variences showed a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The Sheffe post hoc revealed that the pelvic SCPD group and scapular SCAE group showed significant improvements as compared to the repeated gait exercise group (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that pelvic SCPD and scapular SCAE may have immediate effects for increasing the ability of gait speed.

Key Words: Gait, PNF, SCPD, SCAE
Takako Yoshikuni
Mitsuo Arai
Yasuhiro Harada
Michele Eisemann Shimizu
21~26
Effects of hold relax and sustained contraction facilitation technique in the middle range of motion of PNF pattern on the active range of the knee joints Background: The effect of facilitation by a resistive static contraction (SCF) to the lower extremities using a Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation (PNF) pattern in the mid-range motion on the flexibility of hamstrings without stretching compared to the hold relax (HR) technique utilizing a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle placing the target muscle on stretch, followed by a static contraction of the target muscle has not been studied. Also which diagonal PNF-pattern is effective in increasing the extensibility of hamstrings has not been determined. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of HR and SCF using various PNF patterns on the improvement in active range of motion (AROM) of the knee joints. Design: Randomized design. Methods: Sixty healthy volunteers (mean age=22.5 years, SD=4.0) were randomly assigned to the sustained stretch (control)(SS) group, HR (extension-abduction-internal.rotaion(D1-ex)) group, HR (extension-adduction-external.rotation(D2-ex)), SCF (D1-ex) group or SCF (D2-ex) group. The AROM of knee extension with the hip stabilized at 90 degrees was measured in supine position before and after each exercise to determine hamstrings flexibility. Results: A one-way ANOVA showed a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The Sheffe post hoc revealed that the SCF (D2-ex) group showed significant improvements as compared to the SS group (p<0.05). Conclusion: SCF (D2-ex) may have an immediate effect as compared to HR for increasing the extensibility of the hamstrings.

Key Words: PNF, Hold relax, Sustained contraction facilitation technique in the middle range of motion, Range of motion
Yasuhiro Harada
Mituo Arai
Yutaka Hukushima
Nao Takahashi
Ken Yanagisawa
Michele Eisemann Shimizu
27~34
Comparison of the effects of hold relax and pelvic resistive exercise on the range of motion of the knee joints in normal young voluntreers Background: Facilitation by a resistive static contraction (SCF) using a Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation (PNF) pattern in mid-range pelvic posterior elevation (SCPD) and a hold relax (HR) technique utilizing a shortening contraction of the hamstrings to place the hamstrings on stretch followed by a static contraction of the hamstrings has been shown to induce significant improvement in the active range of motion (AROM) of knee extension as compared to a sustained stretching (SS) of the hamstrings for 20 seconds. However, the degrees of improvement in AROM or passive range of motion (PROM) obtained by an interaction of methods and contraction duration (CD) of the SCPD and HR techniques has not been clarified. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a combination of different techniques (SCPD, HR, and SS) and different CDs (20 and 40 seconds) on the improvement of PROM and AROM of knee extension through the lengthening of hamstrings in normal young volunteers. Method: sixty-six college students, with a mean age (SD) of 21.4 (0.5) years, were randomly assignrd to one of six groups (combination of techniques and CDs(3×2)). Both PROM and AROM were randomly measured between and after each technique and CD combination. Results: The results of a three-way ANOVA showed significant differences between the three techniques, interaction between two methods, acd CDs. SCPD and HR showed significant improvements as compared to SS. The 20-second CD showed a significantly larger improvement in PROM than the 40-second CD improvement in AROM. The 40-second CD showed larger improvement in AROM than the 20-second CD improvement in AROM. Conclusion: Although it may not be effective to increase the CD to improve PROM, it may be effective to improve AROM by increasing the CD.

Key Words: Sustained Contraction of Posterior depression (SCPD), Hold Relax, Contraction, Duration, SCF
Tomoko Shiratani
Osamu Nitta
Mitsuo Arai
Michele Eisemann Shimizu
Ken Yanagisawa
35~43
Influence of opposite trunk muscles and low limb muscles the difference static resistance exercise ―Electromyographic analysis of the irradiation efect― The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the influence of opposite trunk muscles and low limb muscles at the irradiation by proprioceptive neuromusclar facilitation (PNF). The study examined twelve healthy male volunteers that static resistance exercise for the one side upper limb at the middle and the end positions by PNF flexion-abduction-external rotation pattern. Integrated EMG (IEMG) of Latissimus Dorsi, Erector of Spine, Glutus Maximums, Biceps Femoris Longhead of the opposite side was measured by a surface electromyogram and the extension force of the opposite lower limb was measured by a Hand-Held-Dynamometer during the exercises performed by using the static resistance exercise for the one side upper limb at each position. IEMG of each object muscles divided maximum voluntary contraction and calculated%IEMG of normaliged. As a result, significant difference of %IEMG of the object muscles and HHD value could not be found with the middle and end positions. Glutus Maximums showed a low value significantly the middle and the end positions that compared with Latissimus, chest Dorsi Erector of Spine, weist Dorsi Erector of spine (p<0.01). These results suggest that it was difficult that demonstrates muscle tension for the Glutus maximums in the supine.

Key Words: PNF approach, static resistance exercise, surface electromyogram
Satoshi matsuno
Katsuya Inoue
Tomoko Kimura
44~48 
Case Study The applicability of Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation with a Body Weight Support System to Spinocerebellar degeneration We applied a Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation (PNF) approach, combined with a Body Weight Support System (BWSS), for balance training involving an 81-year-old man who suffered from sporadic spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) with deteriorated walking and movement abilities. His gait speed was gradually improved after 4 weeks of training. The International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), Posturography, and Barthel Index were also improved. Our BWSS was applied safely to patients underpoing rehabilitation that entailed some risk of falling and it relieved their anxiety and fear of falling. We assume that appropriate resistance during the PNF training may be efficacious in reducing perturbation responses and in promoting balancing capability. In the present study, the PNF approach appeared to increase perception input and it also improved walking speed. We suggest that a training system based on muscle coordination and postural regulation using a PNF approach might be helpful in improving to dysfunction in SCD patients.

Key Words: Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation (PNF), Spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD), Body Weight Support System (BWSS), Posturography
Shinichi Watanabe
Koji Ishiguro
Tomoyuki Hatakeyama Tomoya Asaga
Fujiko Someya
49~57
Research and Study The present state and issues of Proprioceptive Neuromusclar Facilitation postgraduate education We take place PNF workshop as a postgraduate education in Osaka and Shiga to utilize it effectively in clinical place. We made questionnaire survey for 75 participants, its purpose was to grasp the influence for their clinical activity and to clarify the efficacy, the way of workshop should be. The reply "not utilize at all" (28.1%), "not utilize rather"(37.5%) was over the majority, because of lack of knowledge and techniques and difficulties of application to practical. It showed that it was difficult for young PT (average 3.4 years experience) to apply it their treatment only learning the techniques. In addition, there was differences of acquisition status of PNF between each participants, it suggested the postgraduate education should be not uniform way. It should be quota the contens in various workshops to manage the postgraduate educational opportunities in future.

Key Words: utilize PNF, postgraduate education, practical education, quota of the contents
Tomoko Kimura
Katsuya Inoue
58~63