Vol.10(No.1 2010)

【The Original】page1-9

The effects of pelvic resistive exercise on rising from supine to standing for patients with hemiplegia: reduction in amount of time required to rise from supine to standing


Satoko Hirashita, Mitsuo Arai, Kazue Masumoto, Michele Eisemann Shimizu, Ken Yanagisawa, Hajime Shimizu


Abstract:The purpose of this study was to determine how a resistive sustained contraction using a Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation pattern for pelvic posterior depression (SCPD) influences the reduction in the amount of time required to rise from supine to standing for hemiplegic patients (mean

age: 64.3 years). Seven subjects with hemiplegia were randomly assigned to the SCPD group or repetitive rising from supine to standing exercise group. Both SCPD and repetitive exercises were

performed regularly two days per week for four weeks. The measurement of the amount of time required for each rising from supine to standing phase was used to evaluate the effects of each phase. The results of a repeated-measures two-way ANOVA showed that, as compared with the same phase in the repeated exercise group (p < 0.05), a significant improvement occurred with the phase from on elbow to buttocks rise from a bed in the SCPD group,. We found that, as compared to the ADL exercise, the SCPD technique had immediate and cumulative effects for the reduction of the amount of time required for the on elbow to buttocks rise from a bed.

Key Words:hemiplegia, rising from supine to standing, PNF, SCPD

【The Original】page10-15 

The immediate effect of exercise for neck and trunk muscles

on the strength of forced expiration and coughing


Yoshimi Tanaka, Chiho Shimizu, Mitsuo Arai, Yasuhiro Harada, Michele Eisemann Shimizu, Ken Yanagisawa


Abstract:The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of exercises for neck and trunk muscles on the strength of forced expiration and coughing. The interventions included a static contraction using the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) pattern for "chopping" (CHOP),

a static contraction of neck flexion (NF), and rest in the supine position on a bed (REST). Ten subjects who were prescribed physical therapy received 3 random sessions of each intervention. The peak expiratory flow (PEF) and peak cough flow (PCF) were evaluated by a peak flow meter before the first intervention and immediately after each intervention as parameters of the effects of each intervention. The results of a two-way ANOVA showed a significant difference between interventions for improving

PEF (p<0.05). When compared with NF and REST, Scheffe's post hoc revealed that the CHOP intervention showed significant improvements in the PEF (p<0.05). Significant differences in improving PCF could not be found. The results suggest that the CHOP may increase the activity of the expiratory muscles and the ability to excrete foreign objects or sputum from the airways immediately after exercise.

Key Words:trunk muscles, exercise, PEF, PCF, PNF

【The Original】page16-21

The effects of PNF approach on abdominal muscle activity measured by ultrasonography


Yoko Abiko, Teppei Abiko,  Ryota Shimamura, Keiichirou Shindo, Masahiro Maruyama, Sumikazu Akiyama


Abstract:The purpose of this study was to consider abdominal muscle activity during PNF approach from scapula and pelvis at sitting position. For measuring local muscle, transversus abdominis, we used ultrasonography. Nine male subjects (mean age: 27.2 ± 5.6 years old) were measured for the muscle thickness of the external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis. We measured the thickness during subjects held their sitting position without resistance (C), against PNF resistance with approximation from scapula (SA) and pelvis (PA) and weight resistance from shoulder (SW). One-way ANOVA with post hoc comparisons (Tukey) was used for analysis. Results demonstrated that external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis showed significant increase of muscle thickness with PA among all tasks. Transversus abdominis showed significant increase with PA and SA. PNF

approach, PA and SA, facilitated transverses abdominis activation which enhances trunk stability.

Key Words:PNF, ultrasonography, transversus abdominis, pelvis, scapul

【The Original】page 22-27

The Influence of Cardiopulmonary by the lower trunk patterns of the PNF


Osamu Hasegawa, Hisanori Yuminaga, Sumikazu Akiyama


Abstract:The purpose of this study is examine the influence of cardiopulmonary response by the during the PNF approach. Objects were 21 healthy people. The objects was executed the lower trunk

flexion pattern (LTFP) to the left side of all objects in the supine position on the bed. Author performed to different PNF patterns wither one with instruction objects to exhale during LTFP (expiration LTFP), and one with instruction objects holding breath during LTFP (holding breath LTFP). It was measured it with spirometer and a sphygmomanometer at the after rest, and the holding breath LTFP and the expiration LTFP. The parameter was used that there were %VC, IRV, ERV and PFR to investigate function of the lungs and it was an average of the blood pressure and a double product on the function of the pulmonary. As for

the result concerning about the function of the pulmonary, there were admitted to significantly increased that %VC, ERV and PFR of after the expiration LTFP compared with the rest (P<0.05). As for

the result concerning about the cardiac function, only the average blood pressure of holding breath LTFP was admitted significantly increased that compared with the rest (P<0.05). The result concerning the expiration LTFP was little better than the rest. The double product of after the expiration LTFP and holding breath LTFP was admitted significantly increased that compared with the rest (P<0.05). It was suggested that performed expiration LTFP was useful to increasing the efficiency of the expiratory muscles contraction.

Key Words :PNF, spirometer, expiration, holding breath, cardiopulmonary

【The Original】page 28-32

The effect of PNF techniques with replication for the joint position sense in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty


Hidetaka Furuya, Takashi Ito, Kumiko Sumiya, Shingo Tomoshige, Tomoya Tanaka


Abstract:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PNF techniques with replication the joint position sense in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. nineteen participants who had

undergone knee arthroplasty were randomly assigned to the PNF group or the active movement group. The PNF group was performed replication techniques with PNF patterns of flexion-adduction-external rotation with knee extension in sitting position. And both groups repeated the pattern five times. The active movement group was performed active exercise of knee extension. Both groups were measured knee joint position sense in sitting position before and after the each intervention. The PNF group has

significantly improved the average of the errors angle from the set angle knee joint flexion45° before and after the intervention, but the active movement group showed no improvement. This study suggests that PNF techniques with replication are an effective treatment that can help to improve the joint sense of knee joint.

Key Words:replication,joint position sense,knee arthroplasty

【Study Report】page 33-37

The effect of pelvic anterior elevation influence to pelvic tilt

in the sitting position during lateral reaching


Keizo Yoshimura, Hideaki Fukudome, Mitsuo Arai, Satoshi Saya, Yoshimi Tanaka, Ken Yanagisawa


Abstract:The purpose of this study was to examine how pelvic anterior elevation influences pelvic tilt in a lateral reaching task in the sitting position. Nine healthy subjects were divided into two groups at random. Group1(n=5)received a resistive static contraction using the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular

Facilitation(PNF)pattern for pelvic anterior elevation(AE).Group 2(n=4)received a repetition of a reaching task(CONT).The results of a Welch's T test showed significant differences between the

AE group and CONT group at the pelvic tilt angle(p<0.05). Pelvic anterior elevation may be effective for increasing the flexibility of lower trunk.

Key Word:lateral reach , pelvic tilt, anterior elevation

【Study Report】page 38-41 

For researching an irradiation with the end position of PNF patterns.


Keiji Umehara, Masaru Narita, Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Mituhiko Takahashi


Abstract:The objective of this paper is to verify an irradiation of holding at the end position by upper extremity and lower extremity patterns of the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Subjects were nine healthy males. Replication, end-range- hold in the upper or lower extremities for each of the patterns was performed for 7 minutes in a supine position. The opposite side external oblique, latissmus dorsi (LD), biceps brachii (BF), triceps brachii, rectus femoris, biceps femoris with the same side rectus

femoris, biceps femoris in U/E or the same side biceps brachii, triceps brachii in L/E was measured by surface electromyography. For U/E, flexion-abduction-external rotation pattern was significantly (P<0.05) different from the extension patterns for BF of the opposite side. For L/E, extension-abduction pattern was significantly (P<0.05) different from flexion patterns for opposite side LD. In addition, flexion-adduction pattern was significantly (P<0.05) different from other patterns and extensionadduction

pattern was significantly (P<0.05) different from extension-abduction pattern for BF of the opposite side. For U/E and L/E, the irradiation did occur in patterns and muscles in regards to extension side. Although no significant difference was in flections side, this result suggests that if we seek to strengthen the irradiations, we need to work closely with the subject to increase their activities.

Key words:Irradiation, Surface EMG, PNF pattern, Replication, End-Range-Hold.

【Research Study】page42-46

The present state of the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation education of the physical therapy schools


Hitoshi Sato 


Abstract:The purpose of this research was to investigate the present state of the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) lecture by using a questionnaire sent to Japanese physical therapy

(PT) schools. As a result, the school which carried out the PNF lecture was 87.7%. There were some differences in lecture time and lecture contents between schools. It was found that PNF education was not the same level between PT schools. Many teachers of the PNF lecture had opinions that it was difficult to teach it about clinical applications. However, some teachers lectured about clinical application as an effective PNF educational method. Consequently, in the future, more faculty development (FD) will be needed for PT education.

Keywords:PNF, education, questionnaire