Vol.21(No.1 2022)

【The Original】 page 1-7

The effects of opposite directional resistive static contraction of the muscles of around the scapulae on the unexercised contralateral soleus H-reflex


Natsuki Numao,Rui Hobara,Tomoko Shiratani,Mitsuo Arai



Abstract: An indirect approach can be useful in clinical practice when it is difficult to use a direct approach without enough muscle contraction due to muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to compare the neurophysiological remote effects and after-effects of the resistive static contraction of the muscles of around the scapulae, considering the resistant direction. The participants included 12 normal subjects with a mean (SD) age of 23.7 (3.4) years. A 10-s SC of the muscles around the scapula utilizing resistive static contraction of scapular anterior elevation (SCAE) and scapular posterior depression (SCPD) using the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. The subjects were asked to maintain scapular position against the traction force, at a level of resistance that was 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction. The left soleus H-reflexes were elicited sequentially without interruption for a period of 210 s. The period of 210 s was divided into 3 conditions (condition-1 represented the rest phase, 20 s; conditions-2 represented the task phase, 10 s; and condition-3 represented the rest phase after each task, 180 s). For comparison, each H-reflex amplitude during and after each resistive exercise was normalized to the corresponding maximal M wave (Mmax), as expressed by the ratio of H/Mmax. The data were obtained from a randomized block experiment with three tasks (SCAE, SCPD, resting) for each subject (individual factor) over a period of 190 s (19 conditions [time course]: condition C1 ~ C19). Three-way analysis of variance for the H/Mmax ratio was used with Bonferroniʼs post-hoc analysis revealed that the SCAE task showed significantly smaller results than both the SCPD and resting tasks, and the SCPD task showed significantly larger results than the resting task (p<0.05). SCAE may induce the neurophysiological inhibitory effects as the remote after-effects, which may induce the relaxation of the remote muscles.


Key words: soleus H-reflex, remote after-effects, scapulae, resistant direction, PNF

【The Original】 page 8-12

Effects of resistive static contraction of the lower trunk muscles on strength of the knee flexor and knee extensor muscles in healthy subjects


Rui Hobara,Tomoko Shiratani,Numao Natsuki,Mitsuo Arai



Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sustained contraction using anterior elevation (SCAE) and posterior depression (SCPD) on knee extensor and knee flexor strengths in healthy people. The subjects were 9 healthy persons (5 men, 4 women; mean (SD) age: 25.9 (4.7) years) who underwent SCPD and SCAE in a random order. Twoway ANOVA showed significant improvement in the strength of the knee extensor compared to the knee flexor, but the technique showed no significant effect. SCAE tended to inhibit knee extensor strength, but facilitate knee flexor strength, whereas both knee extensor and knee flexor strength tended to be facilitated by SCPD.


Key words: SCAE, SCPD, Knee extensor strength, Knee flexor strength, Healthy subject


【Research/Report】 page 13-16


 A study of the remote after-effects of resistive static contractions of the lower trunk depressors on gait speed of a patient post-stroke ~ A single-subject experimental design ~


Tomoko Shiratani,Rui Hobara,Hironobu Kuruma


Abstract: The use of a Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation pattern in the mid-range of posterior depression pelvic motion (SCPD) as a resistive static contraction facilitation technique may have successive effects for increasing the gait speed of an after-stroke patient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the successive effects of SCPD on the gait ability of an after-stroke patient. A single-subject experimental design was used of an after-stroke patient. (age: 70ʼs, sex: male). One-day period of baseline measurements was taken once in a week at various intervals in phase A1. Phase A1 was followed by one-day period, phase B1. Phase B1 was followed by one-day period, phase A2. Phase A2 was followed by oneday period, phase B2. In phase A1 and A2, the subject was treated with the Sustained Contraction Facilitation Technique in the middle range of motion (SCF) of the triceps surae. In phase B1 and B2, the subject was treated with the SCPD. The measurement of the 5m gait time was used to evaluate the effect of each phase. We found that, as compared to the SCF, the SCPD had successive effects for the reduction of the gait time.


Key words: PNF, ankle fracture, SCPD, sustained contraction

【Case report】page17-21

Effects of resistive static contraction of the lower trunk muscles on ankle dorsiflexion strength after unicompartment knee arthroplasty fracture


Yukiko Murasaki, Tomoko Shiratani, Yugo Sakino


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistive sustained contraction using the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation pattern for pelvic posterior depressors in the middle range of motion (SCPD). The patient was a woman in her late 60s who underwent treatment three months after single-condylar artificial knee replacement surgery. A single case ABAB study was performed alternately two times a week on non-dialysis days for a period of 3 weeks. In phase A,sustained stretch (SS) of the ankle plantar flexor muscle group was performed, and in phase B, SCPD was performed five times. The strengths of the ankle dorsiflexors on the healthy and affected sides and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain on the affected side were measured before and after use of each technique. The ankle dorsiflexors on the healthy and affected sides were stronger and pain relief was obtained after SCPD. These results suggest that the indirect approach of SCPD of muscle contraction of the trunk muscle group can decrease pain of an affected knee joint and improve the muscle strength of dorsiflexors in the immediate phase and over time.


Key words: PNF, mobilization PNF, Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty, Pain, ankle dorsiflexion strength