【The Original】 page 1-6
The effects of different directional static contraction of the right upper extremity on the contralateral left soleus H-reﬂex
Hobara Rui, Ide Natsuki, Shiratai Tomoko, Arai Mitsuo
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the neurophysiological remote effects and remote after-effects of resistive static contraction of the upper extremity, considering the resistant direction on the contralateral soleus H-reﬂex. The participants was 12 normal subjects with a mean (SD) age of 23.4 (2.7) years. A 10 s SC of the muscles of the upper extremity utilizing resistive static contraction of shoulder ﬂexion - abduction - external rotation (R-F-A-E) and shoulder extension - adduction - internal rotation (R-E-A-I) of the upper extremity using the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Three types of tasks, resistive static contraction of the shoulder ﬂexion - abduction - external rotation (R-F-A-E), resistive static contraction of the shoulder extension - adduction - internal rotation (R-E-A-I) and rest after resistive static contraction as task (R-F-A-E task and R-F-A-E task), including resting task, were randomly performed. The left soleus H-reﬂex was measured at before the task (20 s), resistive exercise phase (10 s), and rest phase after resistive exercise (180 s). The H-reﬂex amplitude was normalized to the corresponding maximal M-wave (Mmax) H-reﬂex, which was expressed by the ratio H/Mmax. Three-way analysis of variance of the H/Mmax ratio with Bonferroni’s post-hoc analysis revealed that the H/Mmax ratio of resistive exercise phase was signiﬁcantly larger than rest phase after resistive exercise. Whereas R-E-A-I task had signiﬁcant facilitatory effects compared with the R-F-A-E task, the H/Mmax ratio of the rest phase after R-E-A-I had a tendency to reduce comparing the rest task, which may induce the relaxation as a remote after effect as an indirect approach.
Key words: Remote effect・after-effect, Resistive static contraction, Soleus H-reﬂex, PNF, Upper extremity.
【Sutudy and Report】 page 7-12
Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of resistive static contraction of the scapular pattern on the strength of the plantar and dorsi ﬂexors and the 5m walking time in patients with stroke hemiplegia
Sakino Yugo, Shiratani Tomoko, Arai Mitsuo, Tanaka Toshiyuki,
Abstract: Mobilization with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) as a remote aftereffect of static contraction of posterior depression (SCPD) in the middle of scapular motion, which is a PNF technique, and the sustain stretch (SS) technique in the dorsiflexion direction of the ankle joint were used to investigate differences in muscle force change and walking time between ankle plantar ﬂexors and ankle dorsi ﬂexors. The subjects were 6 patients with hemiplegia after stroke who were undergoing rehabilitation. The average age was 81.7 ± 7.6 years old. Scapular SCPD and SS were performed in random order in the subjects. The maximum muscle force of the ankle joint plantar ﬂexors and dorsi ﬂexors and walking time after each technique were compared. In two-way analysis of variance, the maximum muscle strength of the plantar ﬂexors was strengthened signiﬁcantly more by scapular SCPD than by SS (P<0.05). There was no signiﬁcant difference for the ankle dorsi ﬂexor muscle, but there was a tendency for an increase in the strength of this muscle with scapular SCPD. The 5m walking time was significantly reduced with scapula SCPD compared to SS (P<0.05). In the scapular SCPD procedure, there is less suppression of the ankle plantar ﬂexors than in SS, and this may then facilitate the ankle dorsi ﬂexors as a remote aftereffect.
Key words: Ankle planter ﬂexion/dorsi ﬂexion, Scapular posterior depression, Static Contraction, walking time, Mobilization PNF
【The Original】 page 13-17
Immediate effects of resistive static contraction in the middle range of pelvis motion on jump performance
Fujiwara Yusuke, Tanaka Naoki, Kato Ryuzo, Kanamori Takeshige
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects on jump performance of resistive static contraction of posterior depression (SCPD) in the middle range of pelvic motion. A single leg hop test was used to measure the jumping distance on one leg. The subjects were 20 males aged 30 years or younger. The average age (standard deviation) was 25.1 (3.2) years. The subjects were randomly assigned to a SCPD group and a control group, and inter-group comparison was performed. The distance of the single leg hop test was measured before and after each intervention and the activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles were measured. A Welch t-test showed that the SCPD group had signiﬁcant improvements in the single leg hop test and muscle activity of the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles, compared to the control group. This suggests that the jumping distance was improved signiﬁcantly because muscle activity necessary for the jump movement became easier to mobilize as a remote aftereffect using the SCPD technique.
Key words: PNF, SCPD, remote aftereffect, single leg hop test, electromyogram