【The Original】page 1-6
Influence of the indirect treatment from the one side limb to opposite lower limb
Purpose:The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the effect of the indirect treatment by proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). This study examined rhe extension force of both lower limbs when performing the static resistance exercise for the one side upper limbs at the start, the middle and the final positions by PNF flexion-zbduction-external rotation pattern. Method: The subjects were thirty healthy male volunteers (average age 21.1). Two Hand-Held-Dynamometers (HHD) were attached to the both heels of the subjects in the supine position. The extension force of both lower limbs was measured with HHD during the exercise performed by using the static resistance exercise for the one side upper limb at each position. Simultaneously, the forces of the one side upper limb at each position were measured by a HHD. The maximum extension force of both lower limbs was determined the maximum voluntary static contraction (MVC). Results:During static resistance exercise for at the final position of the one side upper limb, the extension force of opposite lower limb was 7.4kgf･m, and percent MVC was 54.3%MVC. Discussion: The static resistance exercise for the one side upper limb spreads to the trunk and opposite lower limb (continuing movement), and the extension force of opposite lower limb was improved by continuing movement and the dynamics reaction. The influence on opposite lower limb was great because PNF pattern involves the diagonal and spiral movement. Consequently, it was concluded that the static resistance exercise for the one side upper limb by PNF pattern may affect the extension force of opposite lower limb. This method may enables us to more effectively treat muscle strength in patients.
Key Words: PNF approach, indirect treatment, static resistance exercise
【The Original】page 7-13
The cumulative effect of resistive exercises on the improvement in the range of motion of hemiplegic elbow joints
Sachie Shimizu, Mitsuo Arai, Akiko Uehiro, Junichi Obata, Kazue Masumoto, Michele Eisemann Shimizu, Ken Yanagisawa
The purpose of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of exercise on the improvement in range of motion (ROM) of the elbow joint. The exercise included a resistive sustained contraction using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) for pelvic posterior depression (SCPD) and for lower extermity extension (LE) and active elbow flexion and extension (AE). Eleven subjects who had a hemiparesis secondary to a stroke, with a upper extremity Brunnstrom recovery stage ranging from Ⅱ to Ⅵ and a lower extermity Brunnstrom recovery stage ranging from Ⅲ to Ⅵ, participated in this study (mean age=73.8 years, SD=10.3). The results of a repeated measure ANOVA showed a significant difference between the exercise and the total length of the exercise program when the SCPD was compared with the LE and the AE in improving elbow movement and elbow active flexion (P<0.05). But the results of a repeated measure ANOVA did not show a significant difference for improving active elbow extension. The results suggest the possibility that SCPD may have a cumulative effect on the improvement in the elbow range of motion of hemiplegic patients.
Key Words: SCPD, range of motion (ROM), the cumulative effect, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
【The Original】page 14-20
Effects of hold relax and pelvic resistive exercise on the passive and active range of motion of the knee joints in normal young volunteers
Tomoko Shiratani, Mitsuo Arai, Junichi Obata, Michele Eisemann Shimizu, Ken Yanagisawa, Tsuneji Murakami
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) on the improvement of passive range of motion (PROM) and active range of motion (AROM) of the knee joint in normal young volunteers. The exercise consisted of a resistive sustained contraction using the PNF pattern for pelvic posterior depression (SCPD), Hold Relax using the PNF pattern of flexion-adduction-external rotation (HR-PNF), Hold Relax in a plane parallel to the sagittal plane (HR-straight), and sustained stretching (SS). Seventy subjects were divided into 8 groups (SCPD, HR-PNF, HR-straight and SS×2 way). The PROM and AROM of the knee joint measured before and after each exercise in the supine position was used to calculate change in the PROM and AROM of each group and to determine the effect of each technique. The results of a three-way ANOVA showed significant differences between technique in improving PROM and AROM (p<0.05). The Tukey's post hoc revealed that the SCPD group showed significant improvement as compared to the SS technique (p<0.05). A significant difference between the SCPD and HR groups could not be found.
Key Words: Sustained Contraction of Posterior Depression (SCPD), Hold Relax, Range of Motion
【The Original】page 21-26
Effects on the range of straight leg raising when using resistive sustained contractions in different positions of upper extremity PNF patterns
Eiichi Shigematsu, Mitsuo Arai, Junichi Obata, Kenzou Nishiura, Takuya Setoguchi, Michele Eisemann Shimizu, Ken Yanagisawa
The purpose of this was study to determine the cumulative effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) on the improvement of the active range of motion (AROM) of straight leg raising (SLR) in 21 healthy people (mean age=26.76). the exercise consisted of resistive sustained contraction using the PNF shoulder flexion-adduction-external rotation pattern at the trochanter (middle range), 10 cm above the trochanter (shortened range), and 10 cm below the trochanter (lengthened range). The AROMs of the SLRs were measured before and after each exercise, and the results of four consecutive days of exercising were used to calculate the changes in the AROM showed significant differnces in the improvement of the SLR AROM between the groups (p<0.01). The results revealed that both the shortened range and middle range groups showed significant improvements in the SLR AROM as compared to the lengthened range group (p<0.05).
Key Words: PNF, resisitive sustained contraction position, indirect approach
【The Original】page 27-33
The effects of pelvic resistive exercise on the rising from supaine to standing in Hemiplegia
Satoko Hirashita, Mitsuo Arai, Kazue
Masumoto, Jyunichi Obata,
Hajime Shimizu, Ken Yanagisawa
The purpose of this study was to determine how a resistive sustained contraction using a Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation pattern for pelvic posterior depression (SCPD) influences the ability of rising from supine to standing for eight hemiplegia patients (mean age:61.6 years). Eight subjects with hemiplegia were randomly assigned to the SCPD or repetitive rising from supine to standing exercises group. Both SCPD and repetitive exercises were performed regularly two days per week for four weeks. The amount of time required to rise from supine to standing was measured to determine the effect of each exercise. The results of a repeated measure ANOVA indicated significant differences between the SCPD and control group (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCPD may have a cumulative effect for increasing the ability to rise from supine to standing.
Key Words：hemiplegia ,rising from supine to standing ,PNF ,SCPD
【The Original】page 34-39
The effects of pelvic resistive exercise on the rising from supaine to standing
Akiko Uehiro, Mitsuo Arai, Sachie Shimizu, Junichi Obata, Kazue Masumoto, Michele Eisemann Shimizu, Ken Yanagisawa, Tuneji Murakami
The purpose of this study was to determine how resistive sustained contractions using the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) pattern for pelvic posterior depression (SCPD) influences the immediate ability of rising from supine to sitting for twelve hemiplegic patients (mean age: 69.9 years). Twelve patients underwent either the SCPD pattern or repeated rising from supine to sitting exercises. The parameter was the amount of time it took to rise from supine to sitting. The results of a t-test showed a significant improvement when using the SCPD, as compared with the repeated rising from supine to sitting exercise (p<.05). We found that, as compared to the repeated rising from supine to sitting exercise, the SCPD technique had cumulative effects for the reduction of the amount of time required to perform this movement.
Key Words: hemiplegia, rising from supine to sitting, PNF, SCPD
【The Original】page 40-43
Research of effect to active movement of ankle-joint by having combined thermo therapy or cooling therapy and PNF with lower limb
Hiroyuki Yumiba, Kanako Ito, Satoshi Sasaki, Takunori Nagatomo, Tomohiro Uema, Masahito Kaneko, Saori Taneda, Kazumi Kawahira
The purpose of this study confirmed the influence of ankle joint on the coordinated movement having used PNF for the after of thermo therapy or cooling therapy. Objects were 16 healthy men and women. The group that used PNF of eight people enforced thermo therapy or cooling therapy and did PNF. Other control groups of eight people did thermo therapy, and took the rest of five another minute. The measurement did the time required to have done active movement of dorsi-flexion and plantar-flexion of ankle joint (tapping) 20 times. Measurement was done 3 tomes. 1) The first assessment. 2) After thermo therapy or cooling therapy. 3) After PNF. Analysis of tapping movement performed the improvement value using Repeated Measures ANOVA, Dunnett's test, and Unpaired t-test (p<0.05). As the result of this study, time to have done tapping after thermotherapy is shortened. The time required of tapping has been shortened further by having done PNF after thermo therapy.
In addition, it was guessed that doing PNF after thermo therapy took the effect of the treatment of the coordinated movement.
Key Words: PNF, Thermo therapy, Cooling therapy
【The Original】page 44-49
The immediate effects of PNF on scooting by affected hip rotators of femoral neck fracture in postoperative patients
Takashi Ito, Toshiaki Saito, Makoto Honda, Takaya Ono
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effect of the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) exercise on forward and backward scooting in the sitting position influencing affected hip rotators of ten female neck fracture in postoperative patients. All subjects performed both of the PNF on scooting in seated (PNFscooting) and the isometric resistance exercise (isometric). The hand-held-dynamometer was used to quantity the affected hip external and internal rotators before and after each intervention. The results of a paired t-test analysis showed statistically significant improvement average of the error in the affected hip external and internal rotators in both each intervention, yet there was statistically significant improvement the external and internal rotators of the PNFscooting versus the isometric. This result may suggest that the PNFscooting influences the improvement of the affected hip rotators of femoral neck fracture in postoperative patients.
Key Words: scooting, femoral neck fracture in postoperative patients, muscular power of affected hip rotation, Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
【The Original】page 50-55
The effect of loading in standing positon on the Soleus H-wave amplitude
Koji Ishikuro, Ken Yanagisawa, Yutaka Tokuda, Kenichiro Miyahara, Hiroshi Kawai, Toshiharu Shinde, Sumio Nishijo
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of loading in standing position on the Soleus H-wave amplitude. In the experiment, we randomly assigned 13 healthy volunteers in three groups (loading, standing, supine). The informed consent was obtained from all subjects before the study. The electric stimulation was a 1 Hz rectangular pulse with 1msec duration. The strength of stimulation was 1.1～1.2 times of the H-wave threshold. The wave-form was the amplitude wave-form after 16 average addition processings. The statistical comparisons were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer as multiple comparison. The Soleus H-wave amplitude in standing was significantly lower than in supine (p<0.05). We think that the Ia inhibition from Tibialis Anterior and the tonic labyrinthine reflex may have reduced amplitude of Soleus H-wave. The Soleus H-wave amplitude was significantly increased by increasing loads (p<0.05). We think that "The recruitment of motor unit" may have increased Soleus H-wave amplirude.
Key Words: loading, soleus H-wave, Ia inhibition, tonic labyrinthine reflex, recruitment of motor unit
【The Original】page 56-60
Validity of pelvic floor muscles exercise using PNF patterns
Norikazu Maruyama, Takeshi Choufuku, Hideyuki Hatanaka
The purpose of this study was to examine the facilitation of prlvic floor muscles to voluntary contraction activity at pelvic back oblique position and two PNF patterns 8pelvic anterior elevation and scapula posterior depression: PNF1, pelvic posterior depression and scapula anterior elevation: PNF2) administer to trunk. Six healthy male subjects were measured the EMG of external anal sphincter after PNF patterns and voluntary contraction, and calculated%iEMG. The results of one-way ANOVA and post hoc of Tukey showed significant difference 5% between PNF1 group and other active groups. Pelvic floor muscles activity was higher PNF1 group than that of other groups. These results suggested that the facilitation of pelvic floor muscles activity by using PNF pattern of trunk included pelvic anterior elevation.
Key Words: PNF, EMG, Pelvic floor muscles
【Special Contribution】page 61-74
Possibility of PNF as athletics therapy and sports conditioning
1. This study was to introduce the view of PNF as athletics therapy and sports conditioning. 2. The treatments to misuse and overuse syndrome have to use PNF therapy. 3. PNF dose not have evidence to effective of sports conditioning. 4. It was suggested that the improvement in the level of PNF together with the level of sports conditioning. 5. Bad-ragaz Ring Method (diagonal spiral therapy in water) is expected reeducate to trunk muscle mainly on muscle activity of all over.
Key Words: PNF, Sports injury, misuse and overuse syndorome, sports conditioning, bad-Ragaz Ring Method