【The Original】page 1-6
The differences in the immediate effects of the different resistive pelvic exercise on the improvement in the range of motion of the shoulder joints in scapulohumeral periarthritis
Yoshimi Tanaka, Chiho Shimizu, Mitsuo Arai, Michele Eisemann Shimizu
The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the immediaate effects of the different resistive exercises on the improvement in the range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder joint in patients with scapulohumeral periarthritis. The exercises included a resistive sustained contraction using the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) pattern for pelvic posterior depression (SCPD) and for pelvic anterior elevation in the sitting position (AE) and a sustained stretching exercise (SS). Fourteen subjects with scapulohumeral periarthritis were randomly assigned to the SCPD group, AE group or SS group. Active shoulder ROM (flextion, external rotation, and internal rotation) in the supine position was measured before and immediately after each exercise as the parameter of the effect of each technique. The results of a one-way ANOVA showed significant differences between the exercises in improving active ROM. Scheffe's post hoc revealed that SCPD showed significant improvements in the active external and internal rotation angle, and AE showed significant improvements in the active internal rotation angle, as compared with SS (p<0.05). Significant differences in the improvement of ROM between the SCPD and AE could not be found. The remote facilitating effects on the shoulder joint by SCPD may be an effective indirect approach to improve active ROM of shoulder external and internal rotation, and AE may be as effective as SCPD for therapy in patients with scapulohumeral periarthritis.
Key Words: PNF, Indirect Approach, Sustained Contraction of Posterior Depression (SCPD), Sustained Contraction of Anterior Elevation (AE), Range of Motion (ROM)
【The Original】page 7-12
The Immediate Effects of PNF on scooting in seated by the muscular strength of hip joint
Takashi Ito, Hidetaka Furuya, Maki Aihara
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effect of the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) exercise on forward and backward scooting in the sitting position influencing of the muscular strength of the hip joint. The subjects were twenty nine healthy male volunteers (mean age 28.6). The subjects were divided into 3 groups (scooting with PNF, active scooting and squat). The flexor, extensor, internal rotator, external rotator, and abductor of the hip joint were measured with Hand-Held-Dynamometer before and after each intervention. The results of a one way ANOVA showed significant the rate of change of hip internal rotator, external rotator, and extensor. The Tukey's post hoc showed that PNF scooting group improved in the rate of change of intervention before and after of internal rotator / the external rotator of hip joint significantly from active group, control group, and, in active group, a rate of change improved about internal rotator of hip joint significantly from control group. In PNF scooting group, a rate of change omproved in the extensor of hip joint significantly from control group. As a result, I compared PNF scooting with two-dimensional exercise such as the squat more, and a thing was suggested when effective for the muscular strength improvement of the hip rotator.
Key Words: scooting, hip muscle, hand-Held-Dynamometer, Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
【The Original】page 13-18
The effect of PNF approach from pelvis and scapula on trunk muscle activity at sitting
Yoko Abiko, Ryota Shimamura, Teppei Abiko, Yoko Tamura, Keiichirou Shindo, Tatsuya Suzuki, Masahiro Maruyama, Sumikazu Akiyama
The purpose if this syudy was to consider trunk muscle activity during PNF approach from scapula and pelvis at sitting position. Eight men participated in this study. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorder from the rectus abdominus, internal oblique, external oblique, thoracic and lumbar elecrtor of spine and multifidus muscle during subjects held their sitting position without resistance, against resistance with approximation from scapula and pelvis and weight resistance from shoulder. The measurements were integrated EMG from stable three seconds sEMG and a one-way ANOVA with post hoc comparisons (Tukey) was used for analysis. Results demonstrated that rectus abdominus, internal oblique, lumbar elector of spine and multifidus showed significant increase with PA amoung all tasks. PA facilitated trunk muscle activation. This suggested that it is influenced resistance direction and the place of manual contract of PA on trunk muscles and PA facilitate co-contraction of trunk muscles which is necessary for trunk stabikity.
Key Words: PNF, short sit, trunk muscles pelvis, scapula
【The Original】page 19-25
The effects of pelvic resistive exercise on the rising from supine to sitting
Akiko Uehiro, Mitsuo Arai, Sachie Shimizu
The purpose of this study was to determine how a resistive static contraction using the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) pattern for pelvic posterior depression (SCPD) influences the ability to rise from suoine to sitting in eleven hemiplegic patients (mean age: 73.6 years). Eleven patients randomly underwent both SCPD and repeated rising from supine to sitting exercises. The amount of time for rising from supine to sitting was measured. The results of an ANOVA test showed that significant improvements occurred with the SCPD as compared with the repeated exercise of rising from supine to sitting (p<0.05). We found that, as compared to a repeated exercise of rising from supine to sitting, the SCPD technique had cumulative effects for the reduction of the amount of time required to rise from supine to sitting.
Key Words: hemiplegia, rising from supine to sitting, PNF, SCPD
【The Original】page 26-31
Comparison of the effects of hold relax and pelvic resistive exercise on the active range of motion of the knee joints in normal young volunteers
Tomoko Shiratani, Mituo Arai, Michele Eisemann Shimizu, Ken Yanagisawa
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of different durations(20 and 40 seconds) of various technique on the improvement of the active range of motion (AROM) of knee extension by lengthning the hamstrings in normal young volunteers. The exercises consisted of a resistive static contraction using the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) pattern for pelvic posterior depression (SCPD) as an indirect approach for lengthning the hamstrings; the Hold-Relax technique in a PNF patttern (flexion-adduction-external rotation) (HR) as a direct approach for lengthning the hamstrings; and a sustained stretching of the hamstrings (SS). Sixty-five college students (29 men; 36 women), with a mean age (SD) of 21.3 (±0.51) years, were randomly assigned to one of six groups. The results of a two-way ANOVA for non-repeated measurements showed significant differences between the groups. The SCPD and HR for 40 seconds showed significant improvements as compared to the SS for 20 seconds. The SCPD and HR for 40 seconds showed significant improvements as compared to the for 20 seconds. Significant differences between 20 seconds and 40 seconds could not be found.
key Words: PNF, AROM, Knee Joint, Resistive exercise
【The Original】page 33-36
Eeffects of resistive shoulder joint exercise on the ROM of the hip joint in orthopedic patients with a lower extremity disorder
kenzou Nishiura Mitsuo Arai Eiichi Shigematsu Takuya Setooguti Akemi Teshima Takayuki Kajiwara
We researched the immediate effects of resistive exercise of the shoulder joint on the active range of motion (AROM) of the hip joint in 13 orthopedic patients with a lower extremity disorder (mean age: 53.4 years). All subjects underwent 5 seconds of ststic contraction of the shoulder extensors (with about 70% of the maximum contraction9 in three different shoulder positions: flexed, extended, and extended with internal rotation (PNF position) in the supine position. ARPM of both hip joints was measured with the knee extended (Straight Leg Raising: SLR) after a short rest period for each resisted shoulder position. The results of a two-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences for each static contraction position of the shoulder. After analyzing the date, we found that the resistive PNF shoulder position resulted in greater hip AROM improvements in comparison with the flexed shoulder position (p<0.05). These results suggest taht there is a possibility of a remote effects from a sustained contraction of the PNF shoulder position, which may trigger a reflex inhibition of the hamstrings or encourage an increase in reflex excitability of the hip flexors.
Key Words: PNF, static contraction, remote reaction
【The Original】page 37-46
The effects of PNF modified multiplane exercise and SLR single plane exercise on the strength of hip muscles
Reiko Hiroshima, Keiko Yamada, Kimiharu Inui
The multiplane exercise, a modified from of the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) leg pattern (flexion-addction-external rotation), and the single plane exercise using the straight leg raise (SLR) were investigated to determine their effects on the strength of hip muscles. Thirty-two healthy young males were divided into control, multiplane exercise and single plane exercise groups and all underwent isokinetic strength measurement with Cybex6000 before and after the 6-week training period. The strength of 6 muscle groups: flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors, internal rotators and external rotators, in the hip joint were measured. Both exercise groups performed 3 sets of exercise based on their respective 8 Repetition Maximum (RM), 3 times per week, for 6 weeks. The multiplane exercise group showed significant increases of strength in all 6 muscle groups, in spite of lifting lighter weights than the single plane group throughout the 6-week training period. The multiplane exercise group also showed significant dufferences of strength increases in abductors, adductors and internal rotators as compared to the control group. The sinle plane exercise group showed significant increases of strength only in 3 muscle groups and no statistical differences compared to the control group. Therefore, the study suggests that the multiplane exercise is effectious to increase the strength of all hip muscle with lesser resistance and could be appropriate for the patients and the elderly who have difficulty exercising with heavy resistance.
Key Words: PNF, multiplane exercise, single plan exercise, strength of hip muscles
【Research and reporting】page 47-51
The effects of the difference of joint approximation time on sway of gravity center at single-legged atanding after joint approximation
Emi Takeuchi, Naomi Torii, Masaki Shirai
The joint paaroximation (JA), one of the facilitation technique of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is used for enhancing postural stability. Although the effects of the JA has been reported in previous studies, it has not been discussed about the effective duration to apply JA for postural stabilization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the difference in duration to apply JA on sway of gravity center at single-legged standing after approximation. Twelve healthy adults (6 males and females, 30.5±14.4 years of age) participated in this study. Subjects stood by their double-legs and were loaded pressure of about 100N on their shoulder girdle inferiorly by examiner using manual muscle tester, for five different durations, 0 seconds (non-approximation, 0s), 5 seconds (5s), 15 seconds (15s), 30 seconds (30s) and 60 seconds (60s) randomly (5 traials). After JA of each duration, postural sway was evaluated at single-legged standing on a stabilimeter with eye open rest between each trial. The ENV AREA and its ratios were similar between each durations. The LNG and LNG/time of 15s, 30s and 60s were significantly lower than those of 0s. The results showed that JA applied on the subjects shoulder girdle at double-legged standing for duration over 15 seconds decreased the velocity of center of gravity (COG). The low COG velocity maintains the COG within the same base of support at static postural control readity. This findings suggest that JA of duration over 15 seconds are sffective for static postural stabilization.
Key Words: joint approximation, sway of gravity center, static postural stability
【Research and Reporting】page 52-56
The influence of the PNF upon reproducibility of weight
Jun Takashiba, Keiko Hashikawa, Yashio Murakami, Fumiaki Iwasaki, Naotaka Shiota, Hidehiro Maeda
We compared the reproducibility of weight in weight bearing exercise for the sake of investigating the influence on peculiar sense by the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. We addede other exercise at interval of weight bearing exercise and we examined whether the difference of effect appeared or not. The method is following. Forty five able-bodied adults were randomly assigned to the control group, the active movement group, and the PNF group. Each group performed weight bearing exercise three times. Each weight bearing exercise consisted of ten repeating exercises with the weight of twenty kilogram. Immediately after the first weight bearing exercise, we performed measurement the weight by productive test. Before the second weight bearing exercise, the active movement group performed pedaling exercise with the weight of 5kg in lying on their back five times, and PNF group performed replication techniques at PNF patterns of extension-adduction-internal rotation in lying on their back five times. After third weight bearing exercise, we made unified analysis of variance for the sake of comparing the error between criterion value of twenty kilogram and the measurement value by video shooting in each group. The error was the smallest in the PNF group and the improvement of the error was the biggest in the PNF group too. But no significant difference existed amoung each group. In other words, we couldn't make the influence of the PNF upon peculiar sense clear.
Key Words: weight bearing exercise, reproducibility of weight, peculiar sense, PNF
【Research and Reporting】page 57-60
Examination of effects of self stretch using PNF technique
Nobuki Moriya, Kimiharu Inui, Reiko Hiroshima
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self stretch that takes PNF technique by compared and inquired with normal seif stretch and HR. The subjects were healthy male volunteers (average age 21.7). Popliteal angle was measured 5 times, 1) the initial measurement, 2) is after rest, 3) is after self stretch, 4) is after self HR, 5) is after HR.The results of a Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni correction showed significant differences between group2 and 3, group2 and 4, group2 and 5, group3 and 4, group4 and 5 (p,0.01). The results revealed that self HR is the useful method when the therapist is not available.
Key Words: Self Stretching, Hold Relax, Hamstrings, Popliteal Angle
【Research and Reporting】page 61-65
The effect of passive pelvic exercise on lateral trunk flexibility in the sitting position
Keizo Yoshimura, Hideaki Fukdome, Mitsuo Arai, ken Yanagisawa
The purpose of this study was examine how passive movement of the pelvis using a Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) pattern (PM-PNF) influences the flexibility of the trunk in a lateral reaching task in the sitting position. Twelve healthy subjects were divided into two groups at random. Group 1 (n=6) received a PM-PNF with a passive pelvic posterior depression PNF technique by the therapist to stabilize the lumbar spines. Group 2 (n=6) received a resistive pelvic posterior deppresion PNF pattern (PD). The results of a Mann-Whitney's U test showed significant differences between the PM-PNF group and PD group at the L3 angle, pelvic angle, and scapula-pelvic angle (p<0.05). The flexibility of lateral lumbar flexion increased in the PM-PNF group. The PM-PNF technique may be effective for increasing the flexibility of the lumbar spine.
Key Words: PM-PNF, lumbar spine, lateral reaching
【Case Study】page 66-70
The applicability of PNF to person with disabilities's oarsman
Two rowers with disabilities who participated in the Beijin Paralympics treated using a regimen of conditioning and physical training. The subjects reciving treatment were a male whose leg was amputated durectly below the right knee and a female whose left leg had been amputated below the left hip joint. Both subjects were afflicated with a maligned thorax, muscle power imbalance and lower back pain due to repetitive rowing action. This was accompained by the impaired movement of the pectoral girdle. Due to these symptoms, both athletes suffered from a greatly decreased level of performance when rowing. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) resulted in an improvement in thoracic alignment and rowing form. As a result of the success of this treatment, PNF was reaffirmed as a valuable conditioning and physical therapy tecnique.
PNF teaching at higher education in Kingdom of Jordan
I had a chance to teach PNF at University of Jordan, as a part of activities organized by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Association). I had five times class at the depertment of PT in University of Jordan. For each class is two hours long. Approximately fifty students were ion the class. In detail, there were two lecture classes for sophomore and three practicum classes for junior. A lecture room was used for the classes. There were only three treatment tables for fifty students. The practicum training was given to one student by a professionals at first, then two students tried demonstrating PNF while the professional were correcting some of them. Female students were asked use two tables while male used one. There was a notice given by the local faculty for us not to touch females students. Even though the class started female students kept sitting and male students used all the three tables. After 20 minutes later, all the male students left the classroom, and then all the female students started their practicum. Because I was told beforehand not to touch female students. Some distance was kept between the professional and the female students. I was asked to give the hands-on-training by two female students suddenly. It seemed the students had little experience of practicum on campus. It was first time for me to teach PNF only by oral presentation which was given difficulty. This activity found the importance of on-campus-practicum. It is hoped that there will be more of this kind of practicum classes on campus in the future at the University of Jordan.